Division
Definition:
Division is splitting into equal parts or groups.
It is the result of "fair sharing".
Example: there are 12 chocolates, and 3 friends want to share them, how do they divide the chocolates?



12 Chocolates 

12 Chocolates Divided by 3 
Answer: 12 divided by 3 is 4: they get 4 each.
Symbols
÷ /

We use the ÷ symbol, or sometimes the / symbol to mean divide:
12 ÷ 3 = 4
12 / 3 = 4
I will use both symbols here so you get used to it.

Opposite of Multiplying
Division is the opposite of multiplying. If you know a multiplication fact you can find a division fact:
Example: 3 × 5 = 15, so 15 / 5 = 3. (Also 15 / 3 = 5.)
Why? Well it is easy to understand if you think of the numbers in rows and columns like in this illustration:

Multiplication... 
...Division 
3 groups of 5 make 15... 
so 15 divided by 3 is 5 


and also:




5 groups of 3 make 15... 
so 15 divided by 5 is 3. 


So there are four related facts:
 3 × 5 = 15
 5 × 3 = 15
 15 / 3 = 5
 15 / 5 = 3


So, knowing your Multiplication Tables can help you with division!
Example: What is 56 ÷ 7 ?
Searching around the multiplication table you find that 56 is 7 × 8, so 56 divided by 7 must be 8. Answer: 56 ÷ 7 = 8.
Names
There are special names for each number in a division:
dividend ÷ divisor = quotient
Example: in 12 ÷ 3 = 4:
 12 is the dividend
 3 is the divisor
 4 is the quotient
Exercises
Try these division worksheets.
